1Mehran Ghaffari, 1Nahid Beladimoghadam, 1Seyed Hossein Aghamiri, 1Mehrdad Haghighi, 1Abdolreza Javadi, 2Mohammadali Nahayati
1Imam Hossein Medical and Educational Center, Tehran, Iran; 2Ghaem Medical and Educational Center, Mashhad, Iran
Vaccines to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection are considered the most promising approach for curbing the pandemic. There are many concerns about the effectiveness of vaccination in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Few studies have examined the effectiveness of mRNA COVID vaccine in MS patients treated with high potency disease modifying therapies (DMTs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of BBIBP-CorV )Sinopharm( vaccine in patients treated with 7 different DMTs.
Material(s) and Method(s):
This quasi-experimental study was conducted on the patients of MS clinics of Imam Hossein hospital in Tehran (capital of Iran) and Ghaem hospital in Mashhad (northeast of Iran). MS patients with:1- no history of COVID infection in the past 6 month, 2- no history of relapse or steroid use in the past 4 weeks, 3- regular use of a DMT for at least 6 months (9 month for glatiramer acetate) and 4- at least 2 months interval between the previous rituximab infusion and vaccination, were enrolled and vaccinated with Sinopharm vaccine (2 doses, 4 weeks apart). In the case of relapse, COVID infection, or If any of the antibodies (anti neucleocapsid IgM and IgG and anti RBD IgG) were positive at the first injection of the vaccine, the patient was excluded from the study. The amount of IgG class antibodies against virus RBD were measured using ELISA SARS-CoV-2 IgG DIAZIST after 28 days of the first vaccination and on the day 56 (28 days after the second vaccination). An index value higher than 1.1 was considered reactive for anti RBD antibodies.
Out of the 208 patients included in the study, 91 patients were excluded and 117 patients were finally analyzed. Humoral response to vaccination based on the DMT used by the patient was as follows: beta interferons: 89.47% (17 out of 19 patients), dimethyl fumarate: 85.71% (12 out of 14 patients), patients without DMT treatment:83.33% (5 out of 6 patients), Natalizumab 83.33% (5 out of 6 patients), glatiramer acetate:71.42% (5 out of 7 patients), teriflunomide: 50% (4 out of 8 patients), rituximab: 38.46% (15 out of 39 patients), and fingolimod: 21.05% (4 out of 19 patients).
According to our findings, the response to vaccination is maintained in patients treated with beta interferons, dimethyl fumarate and natalizumab, but is less than acceptable in patients treated with rituximab and fingolimod.